Emissions of chemicals such as sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, ammonia and hydrochloric acid directly, or through conversion to other substances, lower the pH of soil and water bodies, affecting animal and plant life. [JRC European Commission]
LCA in which the product specific information comes from a baseline assessment adjusted with a limited amount of product specific data. This is a new concept, developed in this report to describe a new type of LCA approach identified within the studied methodologies.
Unit for comparing the radiative forcing of a GHG to carbon dioxide. The carbon dioxide equivalent is calculated using the mass of a given GHG multiplied by its global warming potential. [ISO 14067]
Weighted sum of greenhouse gas emissions and greenhouse gas removals of a process, a system of processes or a product system, expressed in CO2 equivalents. [ISO 14067]
Claim indicating the quantified carbon footprint of a product.
Set of specific rules, requirements and guidelines for developing carbon footprint declarations for one or more product categories. [ISO 14067]
Carbon dioxide, methane and other greenhouse gases released into the environment allow sunlight to pass through the earth’s atmosphere, but absorb the infrared rays that reflect off land and water. This inhibits their escape and therefore heats up the atmosphere. [JRC European Commission]
Begins with extracting raw materials from the earth and ends with the product leaving the factory.
Begins with raw materials and ends with the final disposal of the product (compost, landfill etc).
Emissions of substances (residues, leachate, or volatile gases) that disrupt the natural biochemistry physiology, behaviour and interactions of the living organisms that make up ecosystems. A distinction is made between different ecosystems, such as freshwater and terrestrial. [JRC European Commission]
Gives the total energy use, raw material use, air and water emissions and the total solid waste produced from the cradle to a factory gate. An eco-profile always starts with the extraction of the raw materials from the earth and ends with the production of the product of interest.
Method of estimating the GHG emissions (and other environmental impacts) arising from sectors within an economy through the analysis of economic flows (source: PAS 2050).
The release of nutrients, mainly nitrogen and phosphorus, from sewage outlets and fertilised farmland causes nutrients enrichment. This results in changed species composition in nutrient-poor habitats and in algal blooms in water bodies, causing a lack of oxygen and fish death. [JRC European Commission]
LCA compliant with the ISO standards ISO 14 040 & 14 044.
Quantified performance of a product system for use as a reference unit. [ISO 14067]
Factor describing the radiative forcing impact of one mass- based unit of a given GHG relative to an equivalent unit of carbon dioxide over a given period of time [ISO 14067]
Gaseous constituent of the atmosphere, both natural and anthropogenic, that absorbs and emits radiation at specific wavelengths within the spectrum of infrared radiation emitted by the Earth’s surface, the atmosphere, and clouds.. [ISO 14067]
GHGs include among others carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs) and sulphur hexafluoride (SF6). [ISO 14064-1]
Exposure to a chemical substance over a designated time period can cause adverse health effects to humans. [JRC European Commission]
Political framework or organizational structure related to a carbon footprint action.
Impacts as a result of radioactive substances in the environment and/or other sources of radiation. [JRC European Commission]
On-pack or off-pack information related to product characteristics.
The use (occupation) and conversion (transformation) of land area by product-related activities such as agriculture, roads, housing, mining, etc. [JRC European Commission]
Compilation and evaluation of the inputs, outputs and the potential environmental impacts of a product system throughout its life cycle. [ISO 14067]
Phase of life cycle assessment involving the compilation and quantification of inputs and outputs for a product throughout its life cycle. [ISO 14067]
Calculation rules and guidelines enabling to evaluate a carbon footprint.
Environmental impact of the product is only considered under the carbon footprint aspect (contrary: multicriteria)
Environmental impact of the product is evaluated through various indicators that can depend on the type of product: carbon footprint, water consumption, eco-toxicity…
The release of substances, such as CFCs, HCFCs, halons, methyl bromide, carbon tetrachloride and methyl chloroform, contribute to stratospheric ozone depletion and increased ultra violet radiation to the earth’s surface. [JRC European Commission]
Ground-level ozone, which has impacts on animal and plant life, is produced by reactions of hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxides to light (“summer smog”). [JRC European Commission]
Quantified value originating from a direct measurement or a calculation based on direct measurements of a unit process of the product system at its original source. [ISO 14067]
Any good and services. [ISO 14067]
Carbon footprint of a product system. [ISO 14067]
Set of specific rules, requirements and guidelines for developing environmental declarations for one or more product categories. [ISO 14067]
Collection of unit processes with elementary and product flows, performing one or more defined functions and which models the life cycle of a product. [ISO 14067]
The consumption of non-renewable resources such as water and crude oil, limiting their availability for future generations and affecting the areas they are taken from. [JRC European Commission]
Quantified value of an activity or life cycle process obtained from sources other than the direct measurement or calculation from direct measurements. [ISO 14067]
LCA not fully compliant with ISO standards, due to time and resource constrains, that is based on a higher number of hypothesis and generic data with less environment impact categories considered, and less sensitivity and uncertainty analysis performed.